Jezen Thomas

Jezen Thomas Jezen Thomas

I'm a Haskell/Elm programmer, the founder of NBM, co-founder of Comparestack, and a public speaker. Occasionally I write about technology, and currently I am perpetually travelling the world. Find me on Instagram, or on GitHub, or write me an email.

Understanding Monads

Yesterday I did not understand Monads, Functors, or Applicatives. Today I understand all three. Not well enough to explain them to a six year old, but well enough to put them to use in the code that I write.

I first encountered Monads about 14 months ago, while working through the Haskell chapter of Seven Languages in Seven Weeks. The author presented Monads as an alien concept, the comprehension of which is elusive to all but the hairiest of neckbeards. I’d like to assert that this does not have to be the case.

Why was I intimidated by the Monad? I can attribute the fear to a few reasons, in no particular order:


In the same way that companies adopt immature JavaScript libraries and frameworks after their virtues are extolled by Hacker News pundits, software people tend to overstate the terror of the Monad which is then internalised by the impressionable people trying to learn functional programming.

Learning Monads, Functors, and Applicatives is a relatively big pill to swallow, but it’s not that hard. It does take some time, and I’m quite certain that any Learn Monads in 10 Minutes! tutorial is going to have to gloss over many important penny-drop moments for the sake of brevity. Sometimes undertaking a large project (in this case learning a collection of new concepts) requires some naïvety to prevent the fear of failure from manifesting itself as an inability to start working. This leads me to my next point…

Lack of context

The Monad tutorials I have read until today seem to mostly focus on the Monad, and it’s an unfair emphasis. After having overcome this hurdle myself, I can now tell you that of course learning Monads is going to be difficult when you lack the context of the why behind the what. In order to understand why we need Monads, we first need to understand why we need Functors and Applicatives. In all cases, the mechanics of each concept are not hugely complicated. Simple explanations with examples of why each concept needs to exist is what is sorely needed.

If you do not first understand Functors and Applicatives and what they are used for, you will have very little of the context needed to learn what a Monad is for.

Poor use of language

After having bought into the terror of the Monad, some programmers proceed to explain the concept through an overly simplified analogy, as if this somehow compensates for the fear the pundits have instilled in us from the beginning. Monads are sometimes described in terms of things, but they are not things. To talk about Monads is to talk about context and behaviour. A Monad is not a burrito.

How did I overcome these challenges and finally learn to understand the Monad? I bought, downloaded, and read Maybe Haskell by Pat Brisbin on a long-haul flight. Don’t be put off by the fact my flight was long-haul; the book is short. I’m just sleep-deprived and a slow reader.

It’s important the book is short. A more traditional Haskell tutorial spends an eternity presenting a million ways to manipulate lists, and I am bored to indifference before ever coming near the chapters on Functors, Applicatives, and Monads.

I don’t know Brisbin personally, and I in no way benefit from praising his short book so highly. The point I would like to carry across is that as a reader, I want the story straight. It’s unbearable to continue reading when an author is dancing around the issue; constantly flirting and selling the benefits and elegance of the way Haskell works. Brisbin’s book gave it to me straight.

I’m driven to write all this because I am excited about what this new knowledge arms with with. There are some powerful and totally uncomplicated ideas that emerge from learning about <$> (fmap) and <*> (apply), the most prominent of which is that functions should assume they are receiving valid inputs. Most of the Ruby and JavaScript code I have written until now has been littered with nil or undefined checks, and this defensive style of programming quickly becomes a total mess. I have learned that the nil checks should be moved out to the boundaries of the system; the data should be validated in one place.

Even if you don’t care to learn Haskell, I implore you. Go read that book.